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教授:个人信息保护立法应明确人格权和财产权属性

来源: 南方日报网络版     时间: 2019年02月20日 06:53:34
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(  本)(报)(记)(者)(王)(峰)(实)(习)(记)(者)(綦)(宇)(北)(京)(报)(道)(
  早)(在)(2003年)(,国)(务)(院)(有)(关)(部)(门)(就)(委)(托)(社)(科)(院)(法)(学)(所)(承)(担)(《个)(人)(信)(息)(保)(护)(法)(》比)(较)(研)(究)(课)(题)(,并)(草)(拟)(一)(份)(专)(家)(建)(议)(稿)(。如)(今)(,国)(内)(包)(括)(个)(人)(信)(息)(保)(护)(内)(容)(的)(法)(律)(、法)(规)(等)(规)(范)(性)(文)(件)(纷)(纷)(出)(台)(,但)(《个)(人)(信)(息)(保)(护)(法)(》仍)(停)(留)(在)(专)(家)(建)(议)(阶)(段)(。
  近)(年)(来)(,对)(非)(法)(提)(供)(、获)(取)(、买)(卖)(个)(人)(信)(息)(的)(打)(击)(力)(度)(不)(断)(加)(大)(,但)(个)(人)(信)(息)(保)(护)(形)(势)(仍)(然)(严)(峻)(,如)(何)(在)(立)(法)(上)(构)(建)(一)(套)(有)(效)(机)(制)(,从)(而)(更)(好)(进)(行)(执)(法)(、司)(法)(,21世)(纪)(经)(济)(报)(道)(记)(者)(专)(访)(了)(亚)(太)(网)(络)(法)(律)(研)(究)(中)(心)(主)(任)(、北)(京)(师)(范)(大)(学)(法)(学)(院)(教)(授)(刘)(德)(良)(。
  《21世)(纪)(》:在)(现)(有)(的)(法)(律)(法)(规)(体)(系)(中)(,有)(哪)(些)(涉)(及)(了)(个)(人)(信)(息)(保)(护)(的)(内)(容)(?
  刘)(德)(良)(:从)(民)(法)(规)(定)(来)(看)(,个)(人)(信)(息)(就)(是)(指)(能)(够)(直)(接)(或)(间)(接)(识)(别)(出)(特)(定)(自)(然)(人)(身)(份)(的)(信)(息)(,比)(如)(姓)(名)(、肖)(像)(等)(,这)(在)(《民)(法)(通)(则)(》里)(有)(相)(应)(的)(规)(定)(。《侵)(权)(责)(任)(法)(》提)(到)(了)(隐)(私)(,最)(高)(法)(院)(2014年)(10月)(9日)(发)(布)(的)(司)(法)(解)(释)(中)(也)(以)(列)(举)(方)(式)(明)(确)(了)(隐)(私)(的)(范)(围)(。还)(有)(《身)(份)(证)(法)(》作)(为)(一)(部)(专)(门)(法)(,也)(提)(出)(居)(民)(身)(份)(证)(中)(的)(信)(息)(受)(法)(律)(保)(护)(。2012年)(12月)(,全)(国)(人)(大)(常)(委)(会)(颁)(布)(了)(《关)(于)(加)(强)(网)(络)(信)(息)(保)(护)(的)(决)(定)(》,当)(然)(这)(部)(法)(律)(缺)(乏)(具)(体)(的)(实)(操)(性)(。2009年)(《刑)(法)(修)(正)(案)((七)()》新)(增)(了)(出)(售)(、非)(法)(提)(供)(个)(人)(信)(息)(罪)(,加)(大)(了)(对)(个)(人)(信)(息)(的)(刑)(法)(保)(护)(。还)(有)(一)(些)(行)(政)(法)(规)(和)(规)(章)(里)(也)(有)(相)(关)(的)(个)(人)(信)(息)(保)(护)(的)(规)(定)(。
  《21世)(纪)(》:传)(统)(的)(民)(法)(理)(论)(认)(为)(,个)(人)(信)(息)(应)(该)(是)(人)(格)(权)(的)(一)(部)(分)(,但)(在)(信)(息)(社)(会)(中)(,个)(人)(信)(息)(的)(经)(济)(价)(值)(被)(放)(大)(,个)(人)(信)(息)(究)(竟)(属)(于)(人)(格)(权)(还)(是)(财)(产)(权)(,你)(如)(何)(理)(解)(这)(样)(的)(争)(议)(?
  刘)(德)(良)(:承)(认)(个)(人)(信)(息)(的)(财)(产)(属)(性)(,可)(以)(解)(释)(现)(实)(中)(的)(很)(多)(问)(题)(。比)(如)(买)(卖)(个)(人)(信)(息)(,显)(然)(就)(是)(把)(个)(人)(信)(息)(当)(作)(了)(财)(产)(。而)(传)(统)(的)(人)(格)(权)(现)(在)(面)(临)(几)(个)(问)(题)(,首)(先)(,人)(格)(权)(受)(到)(侵)(害)(之)(后)(不)(能)(申)(请)(财)(产)(赔)(偿)(,反)(过)(来)(,财)(产)(权)(受)(侵)(害)(后)(也)(不)(能)(要)(求)(精)(神)(赔)(偿)(。当)(然)(《侵)(权)(责)(任)(法)(》中)(后)(来)(有)(规)(定)(,如)(果)(侵)(害)(人)(格)(权)(而)(获)(利)(,受)(害)(人)(可)(以)(要)(求)(财)(产)(损)(害)(赔)(偿)(,但)(这)(个)(规)(定)(仍)(然)(模)(糊)(了)(人)(格)(权)(与)(财)(产)(权)(的)(理)(论)(认)(定)(。
  其)(次)(,传)(统)(理)(论)(无)(法)(解)(决)(自)(然)(人)(死)(亡)(之)(后)(,其)(个)(人)(信)(息)(的)(利)(用)(问)(题)(。因)(为)(人)(格)(权)(不)(能)(转)(让)(或)(者)(继)(承)(。如)(果)(这)(个)(人)(的)(肖)(像)(有)(商)(业)(价)(值)(,那)(么)(他)(去)(世)(后)(,关)(于)(其)(个)(人)(信)(息)(的)(买)(卖)(和)(使)(用)(就)(无)(法)(得)(到)(保)(护)(。
  《21世)(纪)(》:是)(不)(是)(正)(因)(为)(个)(人)(信)(息)(人)(格)(权)(和)(财)(产)(权)(的)(属)(性)(区)(分)(不)(明)(确)(,所)(以)(导)(致)(在)(非)(法)(买)(卖)(个)(人)(信)(息)(的)(刑)(事)(案)(件)(中)(,很)(难)(提)(起)(附)(带)(民)(事)(赔)(偿)(的)(要)(求)(?
  刘)(德)(良)(:对)(的)(,非)(法)(买)(卖)(个)(人)(信)(息)(罪)(在)(《刑)(法)(》中)(也)(是)(在)(侵)(害)(人)(身)(自)(由)(权)(的)(部)(分)(,所)(以)(法)(律)(认)(为)(此)(罪)(并)(不)(侵)(害)(公)(民)(财)(产)(权)(。而)(我)(们)(要)(遏)(制)(这)(种)(非)(法)(买)(卖)(行)(为)(,就)(应)(该)(加)(大)(侵)(权)(行)(为)(的)(成)(本)(,基)(本)(的)(做)(法)(就)(是)(追)(究)(侵)(权)(者)(的)(财)(产)(责)(任)(。
  《21世)(纪)(》:这)(个)(人)(格)(权)(和)(财)(产)(权)(属)(性)(纷)(争)(的)(存)(在)(,是)(不)(是)(导)(致)(单)(独)(的)(《个)(人)(信)(息)(保)(护)(法)(》无)(法)(出)(台)(的)(原)(因)(之)(一)(呢)(?
  刘)(德)(良)(:可)(以)(这)(样)(认)(为)(。我)(认)(为)(个)(人)(信)(息)(的)(保)(护)(应)(该)(分)(为)(两)(类)(:一)(类)(是)(与)(人)(格)(利)(益)(有)(直)(接)(关)(系)(的)(,比)(如)(肖)(像)(、姓)(名)(、隐)(私)(等)(;一)(类)(是)(与)(人)(格)(利)(益)(没)(有)(关)(系)(的)(,这)(些)(信)(息)(可)(以)(被)(正)(常)(利)(用)(,只)(要)(不)(被)(滥)(用)(或)(非)(法)(买)(卖)(,不)(会)(对)(我)(们)(的)(人)(格)(权)(造)(成)(损)(害)(。信)(息)(时)(代)(,任)(何)(个)(人)(信)(息)(都)(有)(潜)(在)(的)(商)(业)(价)(值)(,那)(么)(其)(商)(业)(价)(值)(就)(应)(该)(独)(立)(于)(人)(格)(权)(,二)(者)(分)(开)(。
  我)(国)(关)(于)(隐)(私)(的)(认)(定)(是)(模)(糊)(的)(。实)(际)(上)(,隐)(私)(在)(不)(同)(学)(科)(内)(有)(不)(同)(的)(含)(义)(,法)(律)(上)(的)(隐)(私)(是)(通)(过)(隐)(私)(权)(保)(护)(的)(,隐)(私)(权)(必)(须)(有)(明)(确)(的)(边)(界)(。
  《21世)(纪)(》:如)(果)(明)(确)(了)(哪)(些)(信)(息)(需)(要)(严)(格)(保)(密)(,哪)(些)(信)(息)(只)(需)(防)(止)(滥)(用)(,对)(加)(大)(个)(人)(信)(息)(保)(护)(有)(什)(么)(帮)(助)(呢)(?
  刘)(德)(良)(:因)(为)(要)(保)(护)(个)(人)(信)(息)(,首)(先)(要)(明)(确)(想)(达)(到)(什)(么)(效)(果)(。现)(在)(一)(提)(个)(人)(信)(息)(保)(护)(,就)(是)(防)(止)(泄)(露)(,其)(实)(这)(个)(观)(念)(是)(错)(的)(。我)(刚)(才)(讲)(到)(的)(第)(二)(类)(个)(人)(信)(息)(是)(可)(以)(被)(别)(人)(知)(道)(并)(进)(行)(正)(常)(的)(利)(用)(,但)(我)(们)(现)(在)(并)(没)(有)(去)(做)(这)(样)(的)(区)(分)(。在)(互)(联)(网)(时)(代)(,很)(多)(信)(息)(不)(可)(能)(也)(没)(有)(必)(要)(保)(密)(,只)(需)(要)(把)(重)(点)(放)(在)(遏)(制)(滥)(用)(就)(可)(以)(了)(。
  比)(如)(身)(份)(证)(的)(作)(用)(是)(匹)(配)(使)(用)(者)(本)(人)(和)(身)(份)(证)(上)(的)(有)(效)(信)(息)(,防)(止)(假)(冒)(身)(份)(,危)(害)(公)(共)(安)(全)(。但)(现)(在)(的)(法)(律)(是)(把)(身)(份)(证)(当)(作)(隐)(私)(,从)(而)(忽)(略)(了)(比)(对)(认)(证)(的)(环)(节)(。所)(以)(很)(多)(人)(去)(银)(行)(、保)(险)(公)(司)(办)(业)(务)(,只)(需)(要)(提)(供)(身)(份)(证)(复)(印)(件)(就)(行)(了)(,反)(而)(盗)(用)(身)(份)(证)(的)(现)(象)(比)(较)(常)(见)(。对)(电)(话)(号)(码)(等)(个)(人)(信)(息)(的)(滥)(用)(,主)(要)(体)(现)(在)(发)(送)(垃)(圾)(信)(息)(等)(方)(面)(。我)(觉)(得)(可)(以)(借)(鉴)(英)(美)(法)(的)(相)(关)(规)(定)(,认)(定)(发)(送)(垃)(圾)(短)(信)(侵)(犯)(了)(个)(人)(的)(信)(息)(自)(主)(权)(,以)(及)(信)(息)(存)(储)(空)(间)(的)(权)(力)(,即)(同)(时)(侵)(害)(了)(人)(格)(权)(和)(财)(产)(权)(。这)(样)(受)(害)(人)(既)(可)(以)(申)(请)(人)(格)(权)(的)(精)(神)(赔)(偿)(,也)(可)(以)(申)(请)(财)(产)(侵)(害)(赔)(偿)(。
  《21世)(纪)(》:十)(八)(届)(四)(中)(全)(会)(提)(出)(要)(制)(定)(《网)(络)(安)(全)(法)(》,这)(个)(法)(是)(否)(也)(应)(该)(包)(括)(个)(人)(信)(息)(保)(护)(的)(相)(关)(内)(容)(?
  刘)(德)(良)(:我)(个)(人)(感)(觉)(网)(络)(安)(全)(法)(和)(个)(人)(信)(息)(保)(护)(是)(有)(区)(别)(的)(,如)(果)(存)(在)(交)(集)(,可)(能)(体)(现)(在)(如)(何)(规)(范)(个)(人)(信)(息)(的)(跨)(境)(流)(动)(。比)(如)(像)(美)(国)(那)(样)(,云)(计)(算)(的)(服)(务)(器)(要)(设)(在)(本)(国)(境)(内)(,从)(而)(在)(国)(家)(安)(全)(意)(义)(上)(,防)(止)(本)(国)(国)(民)(的)(个)(人)(信)(息)(被)(国)(外)(非)(法)(利)(用)(。
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